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Best Case Study for Declining Populations? South Korea

South Korea is the world’s first country to have a total fertility rate below 1 (in 2019, it dropped to 0.98).  It may not be the largest population of the 86 declining populations (114 countries have TFRs above replacement level), but it makes for an incredibly important case-study to explore emerging demographic patterns because in the coming years, it probably won’t be the only country with a TFR below 1.

Korea Pyramid
Population pyramid from the National Atlas of Korea

South Korean governments at multiple levels have implemented some pro-natalist policies (tax-benefits, cash incentives, maternity leave, paternity leave, etc.), and the TFR continues to drop.  The economic reasons for this demographic decline make it a textbook example of a highly-developed economy where raising children is very expensive in a post-industrial, overwhelmingly urban context.  However, I think more time should be spend investigating the cultural patterns that led more and more young adults to either postpone child-rearing or skip it all together. In South Korea, as in other countries, marriages are becoming more infrequent, but the social stigma associated with raising a child out of wedlock remains very strong (only 2% of births are to unwedded mothers).  Many women returning to the workforce find that child-care options are limited they struggle to find the same wages that they had before they started a family.  Even before without children though, women in South Korea are confronted with the highest gender wage gap among OECD countries.  As reported in the WSJ, “South Korea has a strong economy, fast internet—and a big gender gap.” Korean work culture expects long hours, after hours social gatherings, and other practices that make it difficult to workers, but especially women, to find a manageable balance between having a career and a family.  Many corporations are reluctant to hire/promote/mentor women that might conceivably conceive and leave the company.

Korea Fert
South Korea’s declining fertility rates (source).

Today, many Korean families see having no children as the only way to survive/improve their quality on life given the economic and cultural context within which they are operating.  The government has been pouring millions of dollars to reverse this pattern but the fertility rate continues to drop.  The video below gives an introduction to the issue.

This video provides a more in-depth look into the issue (turn on the closed captioning)

GeoEd Tags: South Korea, declining population, population, gender, labor.

Good resources to understand South Korea’s Declining population:
National Atlas of Korea: Population Projections.
QZ: South Korea’s birth rate just crashed to a new alarming low
CityLab: South Korea is trying to boost its birth rate.  It’s not working.

A slightly larger than average South Korean family
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This is what MLB fandom looks like across the country

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From www.businessinsider.com

“While Pennsylvania only has two teams, the state’s team allegiance is split across seven different teams.”

There are some good geographic concepts that can be used by showing this map (based on SeatGeek purchases). In this related map of baseball fan regions (based on social media connections), we can see more clearly the value of the core-domain-sphere model.  This map uses the brightest color intensities to represent the core regions and the lightest hues to show waning strength, but to still signify that the area is a part of a team’s sphere of influence.  Essentially, this map is begging you to explore the borderlands, the liminal “in-between” spaces that aren’t as easy to explain. What patterns do you see?  Explanations?

GeoEd Tags: regions, diffusion, sport.

Scoop.it Tags: regions, diffusion, sport.

U.S. Trade Numbers

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“We offer a variety of resources on U.S. Export/Import Trade with the World with millions of free datasets.” Source: U.S. Trade Numbers

This data visualization tool is very reminiscent of the Atlas of Economic Complexity.  While the Atlas of Economic Complexity is better for exploring global trade patterns, this site adds a local impact to the global economy.  Users can explore the major port of entries and see what goods are entering or leaving the United States from particular cities as nodes in global transportation networks.  The permeability of borders are an economic necessity to take advantage of the economies of scale.

GeoEd TAGS:   statistics, transportation, globalization, industry, borders, economic.
Scoop.it Tags: statistics, transportation, globalization, industry, economic, borders, mapping.

2019 APHG Reading Professional Development Files

I was delighted to have Dr. Alexander (Alec) Murphy be our professional development night speaker.  He was one the members of the very first test development committee that made the idea of AP Human Geography to become a reality.  His talk spoke about that history of the early days launching APHG, and the all-important topic, GEOGRAPHY: WHY IT MATTERS.  His passion for geography education was only matched by his incredible teaching style that had the audience enraptured (he kindly shared this PDF of his slides with us).

Murphy
Alec Murphy with Bill Moseley after his 2019 talk

NIGHT OF THE ROUND TABLES: Friday evening, June 7th we had our annual “Night of the Round Tables” event. This event was designed to create a place to share new ideas, pick up lesson plans, discover new resources, and develop strategies for teaching geography. Presenters had 15 minutes to present. Below are the digital copies of the presentations and the handouts that they wanted to share (more will trickle in, so check back if you don’t see something immediately):

Every year, it is a delight for me to watch the AP Human Geography reading and see how all the moving parts come together to do far more than any one individual could do by themselves.  It truly is an honor to be the Chief Reader of such an excellent group of dedicated geography educators who are so professional and passionate it is amazing to watch all the moving parts come together.  It couldn’t happen without such dedicated, professional, and passionate geography educators all working together.

The Xinjiang Conflict: Uyghur Identity, Language Policy, and Political Discourse

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“This study explores Chinese language policy and language use in Inner Asia, as well as the relation of language policy to the politics of Uyghur identity. Language is central to ethnic identity, and official language policies are often overlooked as critical factors in conflict over ethnic nationalism.”

A while back I wrote this blogpost for the National Geographic Education Blog about the Uyghur people of Eastern Turkestan.  The cultural policies of assimilation that are working to erase Eastern Turkestan and more fully make it Xinjiang are politically powerful, but the situation is more pressing that most people today realize. This academic article, The Xinjiang Conflict: Uyghur Identity, Language Policy, and Political Discourse, is an excellent primer to the cultural and political complexities of this place with two names where East Asia and Central Asia meet.  For a more general audience,  this BBC interactive (as well as this NY Times article) is the update to understand how extensive the human rights violations are as re-education camps/detention centers have been used in the last few years to hide away political dissidents and those practicing tradition Uyghur (Uighur) customs.  The video below from the Economist also highlights how the Uyghurs and other ethnic minorities have not been able to participate in China’s recent economic growth as fully because of governmental policies. According to U.S. State Department, the number of people forced into these camps is at least 800,000, but potentially over 2 million.

GeoEd Tags: political, conflict, governance, China, East Asia, religion, culture, Islam, landscape.
Scoop.it Tags: political, conflictgovernance, China, East Asia, religion, culture, Islam, landscape.

2016 APHG Reading Newletters

APHG Newsletter Banner Greetings from Cincinnati, OH, home of the 2016 AP Human Geography reading.  Over 600 professionals are here to score over 187,000 exams.  I’ve been delighted in the past to share the Professional Development activities and newsletters and will continue to do so.  This post will be updated throughout the reading (June 2-8).

Aerial Photos of Iceland Volcanic Rivers

On occasion, we are reminded of how utterly captivating and gorgeous nature is, its visual poetry surrounds us. It just takes a step back, a shift in perspective, to realize how amazing the constructs of this planet are; it’s a beautiful constant balance between order and entropy. Case in point, what appears to be well-crafted, intricate abstract paintings, or works of art, are in reality, mindblowing aerial images of Iceland.”

Source: thesuperslice.com

Andre Ermolaev, through his photography has captured the beauty of Iceland’s geomorphology.  Being on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, Iceland has abundant volcanic ash which adds rich color to the fluvial systems.  

 

Tags: geomorphology, physical, Europe, fluvial, water, landforms, images.

Closing the gap between men and women in agriculture

http://www.fao.org/sofa/gender “The world cannot eliminate hunger without closing the gap between men and women in agriculture. With equal access to productive resources and services, such as land, water and credit, women farmers can produce 20 to 30 percent more food, enough to lift 150 million people out of hunger.”

Source: www.youtube.com

Gender inequality, especially in rural, less developed part of the world, would lead to some of the fastest developmental improvements for the lives of women, men, children, and families.  Women are the backbone of the rural economy, and this single change would lead to countless benefits.   

 

Tags: gender in agriculture, developmentgender, agriculture, labor.

Vultures, Environment, and Mapping Trash

“For generations we vultures, armed with our senses, have fought in silence. We’ve waged a battle against garbage, but now we’re losing that battle. We want to help humans, so we’ve launched a movement to help you detect piles of garbage so that you can take action to eliminate them. Join us in this fight. Vultures Warn, you take action!”

Source: www.youtube.com

This video is an introduction to a fascinating (Spanish language) website and project that uses GPS-tagged vultures to map out the urban trash hot-spots in Lima, Peru.  We look at vultures as the dregs of the food chain and ascribe moral filthiness to the species (just think of any number of movie, literary, and cultural references), but they are simply filling an ecological niche.  This mapping project is a way to use vultures nature in a way that allows for humanity to fix our trash production/disposal problems.    

 

Tagspollution, PerudevelopmentmappingGPSbiogeography, environment, environment modify, South America, land use, megacities, urban ecology, consumption.

 

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